Understanding CS Fallback in LTE

LTE technology supports packet based services only, however 3GPP does specifies fallback for circuit switched services as well.

LTE Handovers - Intra E-UTRAN Handover

Intra E-UTRAN Handover is used to hand over a UE from a source eNodeB to a target eNodeB using X2 when the MME is unchanged. In the scenario described here Serving GW is also unchanged.

Timing Advance (TA) in LTE

In GSM system MS sends its data three time slots after it received the data from the BTS.

Measurements in LTE E-UTRAN

In LTE E-UTRAN measurements to be performed by a UE for mobility are classified as below

Carrier Aggregation for LTE-Advanced

To meet LTE-Advanced requirements, support of wider transmission bandwidths is required than the 20 MHz bandwidth specified in 3GPP Release 8/9.

Automatic Neighbour Relation in LTE

Manually provisioning and managing neighbor cells in traditional mobile network is challenging task and it becomes more difficult as new mobile technologies are being rolled out while 2G/3G cells a

Evolution of Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)


Along with LTE introduction, 3GPP also standardized Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC) in Release 8 specifications to provide seamless continuity when an UE handovers from LTE coverage (E-UTRAN) to UMTS/GSM coverage (UTRAN/GERAN).

LTE Security Principles

The following are some of the principles of 3GPP E-UTRAN security based on 3GPP Release 8 specifications:

LCS Architecture for LTE EPS

3GPP considered 5 architecture alternatives for LCS during study and selected the one explained further according to 3GPP Release 9.

What is TD-LTE and Why the sudden interest in TD-LTE?

TDD (time division duplex) version of LTE is known as TD-LTE.

TOP LTE Vendors : The Number Analysis

As of now 80 operators have made firm commitments to deploy LTE networks in 33 countries according to a recent GSA report.

Introduction of Relay Nodes in LTE-Advanced


For efficient heterogeneous network planning, 3GPP LTE-Advanced has introduced concept of Relay Nodes (RNs). The Relay Nodes are low power eNodeBs that provide enhanced coverage and capacity at cell edges.  One of the main benefits of relaying is to provide extended LTE coverage in targeted areas at low cost.